Urdu Novels

Godaan Novel By Munshi Premchand

Godaan (گئودان) is a novel by Premchand, published in 1936. It is considered to be the best novel by Premchand. It depicts the miserable life of farmers in India. Premchand has mapped the oppression of peasants.

Premchand first started writing in Urdu but gradually moved towards Hindi while Godaan novel was first written in Devanagari script and adapted into Urdu by Iqbal Bahadur Verma Sahir. But still, it can be called an Urdu novel, and that too one of the best Urdu novels.

Munchi Premchand (Hindi Novelist) wrote about three hundred stories, fifteen novels, and three dramas. Translated ten books and left other memorable works in thousands of pages. Honestly speaking, this literary work is one of those munshi Premchand stories That the reader cannot live without reading.

Godaan Novel Summary

The novel covers the sad life of downtrodden farmers in India. Premchand has very boldly drawn the map of the state atrocities meted out to the peasants. After reading it, one realizes why it is called the greatest novel in Urdu language.

Characters Of This Story

The Characters of this novel are Hori, Gobar, Mr. Khanna, Matadin, Govindi, Mr Mehta, Rai sahib, Dhania, Miss Malati, Dattadin, Bhola. All characters of this novel play good roles in this literary fiction.

The characters in Gaudan’s novel clearly represent different classes. Hori and Dhaniya represent the peasants, Datadin Jhangri Singh and Mungru Sah are representative characters of the Mazhabi peshwas and sahkars, Rai Agar Pal Singh represents the landlords, Khanna represents the capitalists, Mehta and Mirza Khurshid and Onkar Nath are middlemen. Seen as representing class intellectuals and national leaders.

Main Theme & Story

Hori Ram who is the main character of this novel lives in a small village called Bellary. He is a farmer by profession and has two brothers. One is diamond and the other is Sobha. Hori Ram has a lot of rent and debt from the landlord.

These are the same loans that Hori took on the marriage of his brothers. By the way, this loan amount was only a few, but now due to interest, it has increased a hundred times more than the original amount.

Hori’s condition is such that he cannot repay the loan taken earlier but still has to take another small and big loan. For example, when a guest came, he took things on loan to take care of him, someone’s illness or farming expenses, etc.


In conclusion, Godaan is widely considered Premchand’s magnum opus and one of the greatest novels in Urdu literature. Through the tragic story of peasant farmer Hori and his family, Premchand provides a searing critique of the oppression of peasants and the stark economic and social divides in colonial India.

With its vivid cast of characters representing different strata of society, impressive depth of social commentary, and rich literary style, It offers profound insights into the lives of India’s peasants and their struggles against poverty and injustice.

Premchand skillfully depicts the cyclical nature of debt and the systemic factors preventing Hori from ever climbing out of poverty. Godaan stands out for its sensitive yet unflinching portrayal of the harsh realities faced by India’s poor farmers.

Regarded as Premchand’s crowning achievement, this highly acclaimed novel combines literary excellence with social consciousness, cementing Premchand’s reputation as one of the foremost writers of his time.

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